According to White (1986), Precision Teaching "has been used successfully to teach the progress of learners ranging from the severely handicapped to university graduate students, from the very young to the very old" (p. 530). Because Precision Teaching dictates neither the content nor the teaching strategy, it combines well with any curricular approach (Lindsley, 1992a). The first classroom application was in conjunction with a Canadian-style Montessori curriculum for exceptional children (Fink, cited in Lindsley, 1992a). Precision Teaching has also been combined with Direct Instruction and Tiemann-Markle instructional design to teach children with learning and attention problems (Johnson & Layng, 1992; 1994) and the Personalized System of Instruction to teach a variety of college courses (Pennypacker, Heckler, & Pennypacker, 1977; but see McDade & Olander, 1987). The Center for Personalized Instruction at Jacksonville State University developed a "Computer-Based Precision Teaching Learning System" (McDade, 1992). The Center encourages faculty members to employ this system to teach their courses. Instructors who participate write content-related questions and bring them to the Center, where the questions are then incorporated into a Precision Teaching format. Courses have been developed in anthropology, archeology, biology, geography, history, mathematics, political science, and psychology. In 1986, the Center offered 100 sections of 28 courses (McDade & Olander, 1987).
One of the most widely cited successful applications of Precision Teaching was conducted in Great Falls, Montana in the early 1970's (Beck, cited in Binder & Watkins, 1990). During a four year span, teachers at Sacajawea elementary school incorporated 20 to 30 minutes of daily Precision Teaching into a curriculum that was otherwise identical to other schools in the district. Their students advanced 19-40 percentile points higher on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills than students elsewhere in the district. Impressive results have also been reported at Morningside Academy, a school in which Precision Teaching plays a major role.
Precision Teaching also appears to be cost effective. A survey by Albrecht (cited in Lindsley, 1991) found that the median cost for teacher training was about $300 per year per teacher in the first year and $60 per teacher per year in subsequent years. This latter figure translated to only $3.50 per pupil per year.
Applications have not been limited to the classroom. For example, Binder & Bloom (1989) employed Precision Teaching strategies to help employees at two banks attain fluency with facts about products and service. A written post-test revealed that they "were able to respond to questions and statements of need with near total accuracy in about three to four seconds." Furthermore,