APA 6th Edition Standards

The requirements for submitting an assignment in accordance with APA (6th ed.) style are outlined below.

Preparation

  1. Include a separate title page and a separate reference page by inserting a page break after the title page and another page break after the conclusions.
  2. Use regular 12-point (black) font.
  3. Use Times New Roman font face.

Margins

  1. The paper must use one-inch margins (top, bottom, right, and left) and the text must be double-spaced throughout.
  2. Do not justify the right margin.
  3. Indent each paragraph with a five-space indent (0.5 inches).

Writing Style

As a general rule, write in the 3rd person singular, unless a personal pronoun is required to avoid ambiguity.

Example of 1st person:

I will write about ...

Example of 3rd person:

This paper will focus on ...

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Title Page

The title page includes the following elements:

  1. The Title of the paper should summarize the main idea of the paper, identifying the research question or topic. It should be centred horizontally on the page.
  2. The Running head includes an abbreviated form of the title of the paper (flush left) and the page number (flush right). The “running head” will appear on all pages of the paper (embedded as a header), including the title page. It should appear in all caps, and should be no longer than 50 characters, including letters, spaces, and punctuation.
  3. Note: The words “Running head:” only appear on the first line of the title page (flush left). On subsequent pages, only the abbreviated title that identifies the paper appears.
  4. The Author byline should appear below the title (first name, middle initial, and last name), and should also be centred horizontally.
  5. Below the author byline (student name) and student ID, include your institutional affiliation (e.g., Athabasca University), centred horizontally; also include your tutor‘s name and date.

Example:

Click on the tabs above to see examples and demonstrations. (Tip for keyboard users: once you are on the first tab, you can use your arrow keys to move through the tabs.)

Explanation

title page with explanation

Applied Example

title page example

How to (First page: Header for MS-Word 2003 on PC)

The Page "header" consists of either the first two or three words of the main title or two very important words from the main title; also the page number. Word 2003 allows you to insert this header automatically, so you do not have to type it at the top of every page. To insert/embed the ‘page header and page number’ as a header in MS-Word 2003:

  1. Click on the View tab at the top of the screen
  2. Scroll down and click on Header and Footer
  3. Click on the right justified tab
  4. In the dotted box, type in page header, press the space bar five times, and in the Header and Footer pop-up screen, click on the far left icon (reads as Insert Page Number when the curser is passed over it).
  5. Click on Close on the pop-up screen. The page and header and page number will show up on every page.

How to (First page: Header for MS Word 2007 on PC)

Creating a Header: The header consists of a running head and page number. The running head appears at the top left of every page (left justified) and the page number appears at the top right of every page (right justified). The running head is a shortened version of the title (in CAPITAL letters) and should not exceed 50 characters. Word 2007 allows you to insert this header automatically, so you do not have to type it at the top of every page.

  1. In title bar [top of page], click on Insert tab.
  2. Click on Header and then first Blank tab – a new Design tab will appear. Under the Design tab, check off Different first page.
  3. Type Running head: in the header at the flush left margin. Then type in your ABBREVIATED TITLE [a shortened version of your paper title in CAPITAL letters]. This abbreviated title is what you will copy and insert/paste into the second page and will appear on all subsequent pages but without the words ‘Running head:’
  4. Tab over to the far right and type 1.
  5. Double click anywhere on page [but out of header]. For page 2 header, go to 7. How to (Second Page: Header for MS-Word 2007 on PC)

How to (First page: Header MS Word 2008 on Mac)

Creating a Header: The header consists of a running head and page number. The running head appears at the top left of every page (left justified) and the page number appears at the top right of every page (right justified). The running head is a shortened version of the title (in CAPITAL letters) and should not exceed 50 characters. Word 2008 allows you to insert this header automatically, so you do not have to type it at the top of every page.

  1. Go to the View tab and click Print Layout.
    NOTE: You need to be in Print Layout view because you can't see the header or footer in Draft view.
  2. Click Header and Footer under the View menu.
  3. Click anywhere inside the header or footer and type your text. NOTE: The text will appear on every page
  4. Click anywhere in the footer area and then choose View Formatting Palette to open the Formatting Palette. Expand the Formatting Palette‘s Header and Footer panel.
    NOTE: The Formatting Palette enables you to include the page number, date, and time within your header.
  5. Set the perferred options of your choice and then click Close.

How to (Second Page: Header for MS-Word 2003 on PC)

To create a different header for the second and subsequent pages of your paper, follow these steps:

  1. Create the title page header as described above.
  2. Click somewhere at the bottom of your title page, below any body text.
  3. Click on the Insert Tab, select Break, and then select Continuous.
  4. Go to your second page and double-click on the header to select it. Click on the icon that is fourth to the left of the word close in the Header/Footer toolbar (It will say “Link to Previous” when you point the mouse at it). Now you can delete the words “Running head:” and they will not appear on the second and subsequent pages.

    NOTE: you may need to re-tab the page number to the right.

How to (Second Page: Header for MS-Word 2007 on PC)

To create a different header for the second and subsequent pages of your paper, follow these steps:

  1. If you have already created the header for the title page as described in 4. How to (First Page: Header for MS Word 2007 on PC), go to next step.
  2. Double click anywhere on page 1 [but out of header] and then hold down Control key and press Enter key one time. You should be on page 2.
  3. In header, you should see [Type text]. Double click on this and click on Insert tab. Click on Page Number/Top of Page/Plain Number 1 and the page number 2 should appear or type in 2.
  4. Place cursor in front of the page number 2 and type in or insert/paste your ABBREVIATED TITLE.
  5. Tab the number 2 over to the far right.
  6. Double click anywhere on page [but out of header].and then hold down Control key and press Enter key one time. You should see ABBREVIATED TITLE and page number 3 in header.
  7. All subsequent pages will increase page number automatically.

How to (Second Page: Header for MS-Word 2008 on Mac)

  1. See Tab 5 How to (MS-Word 2008 for Mac).
  2. Choose "View Formatting Palette" to open the Formatting Palette. Expand the Formatting Palette's Header and Footer panel.
  3. Click on "Different First Page" as this lets you have a different header on the first page of your document

    http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-create-headers-and-footers-in-word-2008-for.html

Abstract

Manuscripts submitted for publication are required to have an abstract (a brief summary of the paper, typically 150-200 words ). The abstract is on a separate page immediately following the title page. The abstract, a complete but concise summary of your paper, is generally the first thing read after the title.

NOTE: Abstracts are only included with published articles — this is presented here for information only. Please do NOT prepare an abstract unless instructed to do so in your course materials or by your tutor.

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Introduction

The body of the text is on a separate page from the title page and the abstract page. The introduction is clearly identified by its position in the paper, so it is not labelled. The introduction should clearly define the problem or issue at hand, and state the research question. It should also provide a clear statement of purpose, the goals of the paper, and an overview of the structural plan. It starts out broadly and becomes increasingly specific.

Example:

example of an introduction

SEXUAL ASSAULT PERSPECTIVES 1 Sexual assault is defined by Pozzulo, Bennell, and Forth (2009) as ... (p. 289). Sexual assaulters can be categorized and re-categorized ... For the purposes of this paper, the focus will be on ... As there is such a large domain of offences that fall under "sexual assault," the three areas of interest in this paper are .... In analyzing these three groups or subsets of sex offenders, the ... will be compared and contrasted. Statistics, research materials, and methods ... will be analyzed for their validity and significance within the realms of psychology and law.

See section 2.05 of the APA Manual (6th ed.) for more information about the introduction.

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References

The reference page appears on a separate page from the body of the text, with the heading “References” centred on the page. Reference entries should be double-spaced, in hanging indent format (the first line of each reference appears flush left, and subsequent line are indented). Primary [unfiltered] and secondary sources cited in your paper must appear in your reference list, using APA 6th edition format. The reference page is considered part of your paper, so the reference section is numbered consecutively (page numbers) as part of your paper. The references are listed alphabetically by author (last name, first initial, etc.).

NOTE: To create a hanging indent, place the cursor where you want the hanging indent to occur, press the CTRL key and press the letter ‘T’. This automatically formats each entry with a hanging indent.

NOTE: Only original primary and secondary sources are both cited AND referenced. Interpreted primary sources are cited but are NOT referenced — see Secondary Sources previously described and In-text Citations described further on in this tutorial.

In general, each reference should include the name(s) of the author(s), the date of publication, the title of the article or book, publication data and, where possible, the Digital Object Identifier (DOI).

Bonnie, R. J. (1992). The competence of criminal defendants: A theoretical reformulation. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 10(3), 291-316. doi:10.1002/bsl.2370100303

The DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is for digital/online journal articles only. If the DOI is not available, include the exact URL of the journal's home page. See the examples below.

If you are having difficulty locating the DOI, click on the following link: free DOI lookup. Fill in as much of the information as possible, e.g., author last name, journal title, article title, volume, issue, page, and year.

If the reference does not have a DOI, and the item was retrieved from an online source, include the URL of the specific page of the source (retrieval date not needed).

Bonnie, R. J. (1992). The competence of criminal defendants: A theoretical reformulation. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 10(3), 291-316. Retrieved from http://0-eds.a.ebscohost.com.aupac.lib.athabascau.ca/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=44c7b9eb-90c0-4f7a-b2c5-f75d798923ef%40sessionmgr4001&hid=4203

If the article URL cannot be located, or if the item comes from a regularly published journal, use the journal home page URL.

Bonnie, R. J. (1992). The competence of criminal defendants: A theoretical reformulation. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 10(3), 291-316. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%291099-0798

If the article is print-based and the DOI information is not listed, only the journal information is required.

Bonnie, R. J. (1992). The competence of criminal defendants: A theoretical reformulation. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 10(3), 291-316.

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Journals

On your reference page, left justify the first line of each reference, and indent all subsequent lines (five spaces or 0.5 inches). Invert the author's names (last name, comma, initials). The first letter of each article or book title is capitalized as is the first letter after a colon. All proper names have the first letter capitalized. Each word (except conjunctions, articles, and short prepositions) in a journal title is capitalized, and the journal title and volume number are italicized. The issue number (in parentheses) and page numbers are regular font, with no space between the volume number and issue number.

Click on the tabs above to see different formats for reference, according to the number of authors. (Keyboard users: once you are on the first tab, use your arrow keys to move through the tabs.)
Journal articles (one author):

NOTE: Roll your cursor over the following underlined phrases to highlight the relevant portion of the example below. Italicize the name of the journal and the volume number.The issue number appears in parentheses after the volume number (no space) and is NOT italicized. The pages of the article are not italicized.

Bonnie, R. J. (1992). The competence of criminal defendants: A theoretical reformulation. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 10(3), 291-316. doi:10.1002/bsl.2370100303

Journal articles (two authors):

NOTE: Roll your cursor over the following underlined phrases to highlight the relevant portion of the example below. Use the ampersand (&) instead of "and," preceded by a comma.

Kassin, S. M., & Gudjonsson, G. H. (2004). The psychology of confessions: A review of the literature and issues. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5(2), 33-67. doi:10.1111/j.1529-1006.2004.00016.x

Journal articles (three to seven authors):

List all of the authors.

Vitacco, M. J., Rogers, R., Gabel, J., & Munizza, J. (2007). An evaluation of malingering screens with competency to stand trial patients: A known-groups comparison. Law and Human Behavior, 31(3), 249-260. doi:10.1007/s10979-006-9062-8

Journal articles (more than seven authors):

NOTE: Roll your cursor over the following underlined phrases to highlight the relevant portion of the example below. In the reference below, the first six authors and the last author are listed, with ellipsis points (...) in between (this article has 18 authors).

Weissman, M. M., Bland, R. C., Canino, G. J., Faravelli, C., Greenwald, S., Hwu, H. G., ... Yeh, E. K. ( 1996). Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 276(4), 293-299. doi:10.1001/jama.276.4.293


Books:

NOTE: Roll your cursor over the following underlined phrases to highlight the relevant portion of the example below. Italicize the title of the book. Do not italicize the edition of the book. Publication information includes the year of publication, the name of the city, the state/province, and sometimes country (if the city is not well known), followed by the name of the publisher.

Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological testing (7th ed.). New York, NY: MacMillan.

Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Pozzulo, J., Bennell, C., & Forth, A. (2009). Forensic psychology (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Treat multiple author references the same way as in the journal references above.

Other types of references (see also In-text Citations section)

Click on the tabs above to see examples and demonstrations. (Keyboard users: once you are on the first tab, use your arrow keys to move through the tabs.)
No author

Britain launches new space agency. (2010, March 24). Retrieved from http://news.ninemsn.com.au/technology/1031221/britain-launches-new-space-agency

Verisimilitude. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/verisimilitude

Editor as author

Updike, J. (Ed.). (1999). The best American short stories of the century. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Chapter of a book - author listed

Rubenstein, J. P. (1967). The effect of television violence on small children. In B. F. Kane (Ed.), Television and juvenile psychological development (pp. 112-134). New York, NY: American Psychological Society.

No publishing date

Gender and society. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.trinity.edu/~mkearl/gender.html

When an article does not have a publishing date, (n.d.) (no date) is inserted in parentheses.

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In-text Citations

You must provide in-text citations for all primary [original and interpreted] and secondary sources used in your paper, and all cited primary [original] and secondary sources must appear in your reference list. You must cite all sources (primary and secondary, where applicable) for direct quotes or paraphrased material (see Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Sources section in this tutorial). Failure to do so constitutes plagiarism (see Academic Integrity section as outlined in each course and in the AU Calendar).

Do NOT cite from the abstract portion of a research article. It is similar to writing a book report based on the reviews or synopsis taken from the front and back covers of a book.

Examples of in-text citations (journals and books):

Click on the tabs above to see examples and demonstrations. (Keyboard users: once you are on the first tab, use your arrow keys to move through the tabs.)
One author

Brown (1997) investigated ...
OR
The effects of ... (Brown, 1997).

Two authors

Jones and Smith (1992) reported ...
OR
The results showed ... (Jones & Smith, 1992).

Separate the author names with the word “and” in the narrative text and use the ampersand symbol “&” when the authors are listed in parentheses.

Three to five authors

Black, Norsmith, and Hillyard (1999) compared ...
OR
The comparison of ... (Black, Norsmith, & Hillyard, 1999).

In a citation with three to five authors, list all authors the first time the citation appears (e.g., Vitacco, Rogers, Gabel, & Munizza, 2007). In subsequent citations, cite only the first author’s last name with “et al.” (e.g., Vitacco et al., 2007).

Six or more authors

Weissman et al. (1996) believed ...
OR
Their study showed ... (Weissman et al., 1996).

In a citation with six or more authors, list only the first author in the citation, and include additional authors as “et al.”

Direct quotes in a citation

Children present special complications to clinicians and researchers in that “child psychotherapy lags a good ten years behind the treatment of adult mental disorders and way behind physical medicine” (Fishman, 1995, p. 30).
OR
Fishman (1995) considered that children present special complications to clinicians and researchers. “Child psychotherapy lags a good ten years behind the treatment of adult mental disorders and way behind physical medicine” (p. 30)

Secondary source citations

According to Haney (1980), psychology of the law includes ... (as cited in Pozzulo, Bennell, & Forth, 2009).

Psychology of the law includes ... (Haney, 1980, as cited in Pozzulo, Bennell, & Forth, 2009).

In the examples above, Pozzulo, Bennell, & Forth is the secondary source citation (see also Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Sources section in the tutorial).

Other types of citations (see also Reference section)

Click on the tabs above to see examples and demonstrations. (Keyboard users: once you are on the first tab, use your arrow keys to move through the tabs.)
No author

... ("Britain Launches New Space Agency," 2010).

NOTE: Roll your cursor over the following underlined phrases to highlight the relevant portion of the example above. In a citation with no author, the citation is the name of the book or article with capitalized first letter for each word, with quotation marks at the front of the name and at the end of the name following the comma.

Editor as author

... (Updike, 1999).

In a citation where the editor is the author, the editor is cited.

Chapter of a book — author listed

... (Rubenstein, 1967)

In a citation of a book chapter where the chapter author is listed, the chapter author is cited, not the book editors

No publishing date

Famous names include ... (Nielsen, n.d.).

In a citation where is no publishing date, use the format “n.d.” as above.

Sources Without Page Numbers

When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited.

When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the ¶ symbol, or the abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number

e.g., (Hall, 2001, ¶ 5) or (Hall, 2001, para. 5).